Satinder K. Brar : Department 1INRS-ETE, Université du Québec, 490, de la Couronne, Québec, Canada G1K 9A9
Department of Civil Engineering, Lassonde School of Engineering, York University, North York (Toronto), Canada, M3J 1P3.
M. Verma : Department 1INRS-ETE, Université du Québec, 490, de la Couronne, Québec, Canada G1K 9A9
R.D. Tyagi : Department 1INRS-ETE, Université du Québec, 490, de la Couronne, Québec, Canada G1K 9A9
R.Y. Surampalli : US EPA, P.O. Box-17-2141, Kansas City, Kansas, KS 66117
K. Misra : Department of Science and Technology, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi-110016, India
The widely used applications of the Chromium metal compound in finishing metals, protection of wood, brass formation, electrical equipment designing, and sometimes as catalyst makes it available in different kinds of industrial waste. Industrial waste waters rich in chromium of different oxidations states, most important ones being Cr (III) and Cr (VI), have been a major concern for the environment in spite of application of various remediation technologies. Various reviews have been published for the removal technologies of Cr (VI) which is the most noxious oxidation state; however, Cr (III) also is a pertinent state to investigate owing to its toxicity as well as stability in different environmental compartments. Thus, this review explores the existence of different tanneries world over, the type of wastes generated, methods to remediate and dispose of the same, all in relation to Cr (III) and will be one of its kind and of great interest to researchers pursuing research in thisfield.
Chromium (III); remediation; physical; chemical; biological methods